Praziquantel

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Praziquantel (dewormer)

What It Treats
Flukes (Monogeneans), Black Ich (Turbellarians), and intestinal worms.

How To TreatThere are a few aquarium products which contain praziquantel: Prazipro, API General Cure and Thomas Labs Fish Tapes. Follow the dosing instructions for whatever product you are using. If using straight powder praziquantel powder, dose @ 2.5 mg/L (or 9.5 mg/gal). Powder praziquantel is not easily water soluable and it often helps to mix your dose in a small amount of ethyl alcohol or even common vodka before dosing your tank.

With prazi dose once, wait about a week, do a 20-25% water change and then repeat dosage. (Or use this treatment calendar to determine when is the best time to add the second dose.) The reason for the second dose is to eradicate the “next generation” of worms before they can lay eggs of their own. Because while Prazi does kill worms, it doesn’t eliminate any eggs they might leave behind.

If you are treating a known prazi sensitive species (e.g. wrasse), you can run carbon or perform a water change 24 hours after dosing in order to limit exposure time. While praziquantel does remain active in the water column for up to 72 hours, only 24 hours are needed for it to eradicate external worms. Don’t forget to still do the second round though!

Prazipro is generally considered reef safe, although it may kill any tube worms/feathers dusters you have. It may also eradicate bristle worms. If you have mass quantities of these, the resulting die-off can lead to an ammonia spike. After treatment is done, activated carbon may be used to remove any residuals (if you need to use a different medication next). This is important because the Oxybispropanol (solubilizing agent) Prazipro contains will sometimes cause a bacterial bloom (cloudy water) when mixed with other meds. If using a protein skimmer post-treatment, be advised that it will “over skim” for at least a week or so.

API General Cure contains both praziquantel and metronidazole, and is an effective substitute for using Prazipro. (Just don’t follow the 48 hour repeat dosage instructions; Redose 5-7 days later instead.) But where General Cure really shines is when soaked in food to treat both intestinal worms and internal parasites (flagellates). Both maladies share one classic symptom: White stringy feces. You can also food soak Thomas Labs Fish Tapes or just straight praziquantel powder; but be aware that prazi only treats intestinal worms. (You would need to food soak metronidazole for internal flagellates.) I recommend feeding the medicated food daily for 2-3 weeks, or until symptoms are no longer present. My recipe for food soaking prazi (and metro) can be found below:

Using a shot glass:
1 scoop (~ 1/8 teaspoon) of medication
1 scoop Seachem Focus (this makes it reef safe)
1 tbsp food (preferably pellets or frozen food)
A pinch of Epsom salt to help expel dead worms/parasites
A few drops of saltwater or fish vitamins
Stir until a medicated food slurry has been achieved
Feed after soaking for 30 mins

Refrigerate or freeze any leftovers for future use

Pros
Reef safe, effective dewormer that is relatively gentle on most fish.

Cons/Side EffectsMild appetite suppression, moderate oxygen depletion, wrasses are sensitive to overdosing. Prazi resistant worms (both external and internal) do exist, so sometimes an alternative treatment must be used instead. This includes hyposalinity or formalin (to treat external worms), and food soaking Fenbendazole to deal with prazi resistant intestinal worms.
 

mattzang

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what kind of signs are there that fish are suffering from flukes? i haven't GC'd or prazi'd my current group of fish, but i did do h2o2 baths on all of them before putting them in. on top of that i've fed medicated food for several weeks, but i feel like the fish are acting a little funny with some twitchiness so i'm wondering if some fluke eggs snuck through. i haven't seen any white stringy poops, but i did see something long white and stringy floating around the tank the other day (maybe was just a hair, but it was really long). i haven't seen any flashing or scratching on rocks, so i don't think ich snuck through hence why i'm kinda zoning in on maybe flukes

the other thing i'm pondering is the cyano is pretty bad despite numerous water changes and siphoning, could that possibly be bothering the fish somehow?
 

mattzang

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I just noticed her today kinda acting like this. breathing faster, seems interested in food but didn't eat much from what I saw. kind of seems to be hanging off to the sides of the tank more stationary. which seems polar opposite of how she was normally acting, very social front and center first to eat food, etc. i've had her for at least a month now, but did add the magnificent foxface a couple weeks ago.
 

mattzang

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Do you have dinos in the tank? (I thought I saw some "snot" on some of the rocks.) If so, might want to run carbon to remove any toxins being released into the water. Could be related to the heavy breathing.
yeah i noticed that too, it seems like cyano, but there has been added bubbles the last couple days (since i did a water change and tried to siphon it out, fail). so i added a new bag of carbon when i did the water change so it should be good on that front

i guess i could try to catch her after lights out in an hour or so and fresh water dip to see what comes off, but i don't have a good black container for it. i hate to make her afraid of me too lol, i loved how she was not afraid of me. the foxface still hasn't forgiven me for the h2o2 bath.

i should also add i've been doing a dose of h2o2 at night into the water column after lights out. usually 6-8 mL and it's in a 40 breeder minus some rock and sand so it's a fairly high dosage. maybe that's having a negative effect?
 

Humblefish

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i should also add i've been doing a dose of h2o2 at night into the water column after lights out. usually 6-8 mL and it's in a 40 breeder minus some rock and sand so it's a fairly high dosage. maybe that's having a negative effect?
I think @Jessican mentioned seeing dinos after a month or so of dosing H2O2. Probably because it cleanses the water so well. Which BTW, you don't want to perform water changes so long as you have dinos in your tank.
 

mattzang

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welp, dead butterfly :(

man it sucks how quickly fish can go downhill. so after posting the video I sat in there watching the tank for a good 30 min and saw her scratch a couple times so i'm thinking it's gotta be flukes or something. the other fish don't seem as irritated
 

mattzang

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there's definitely some bubbles and stringiness going on there, but idk it doesn't look like the more standard dinos i got in my DT awhile back.

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unfortunately i think she had been dead awhile before i found her (and apparently at least one nassarius snail survived my h2o2 dosing). i can't really see much? i didn't see those little fluke things in the container, but it definitely looks like the gills were bothered?
 

Humblefish

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welp, dead butterfly :(

man it sucks how quickly fish can go downhill. so after posting the video I sat in there watching the tank for a good 30 min and saw her scratch a couple times so i'm thinking it's gotta be flukes or something. the other fish don't seem as irritated
To kill that fast suggests velvet. :(
 

mattzang

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so last night i didn't do my nightly dose of h2o2 since i thought i'd be dosing prazi soon, i wonder if that allowed just enough velvet to overwhelm her :(

super busy the next two days too not sure when i'll have time to set up another tank to deal with velvet..

man i'm really disappointed if it's velvet because that means h2o2 baths are pretty worthless outside of temporary relief
 

Jessican

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so last night i didn't do my nightly dose of h2o2 since i thought i'd be dosing prazi soon, i wonder if that allowed just enough velvet to overwhelm her :(

super busy the next two days too not sure when i'll have time to set up another tank to deal with velvet..

man i'm really disappointed if it's velvet because that means h2o2 baths are pretty worthless outside of temporary relief
Keep dosing the peroxide until you can get a QT tank set up. It should keep it at bay.
 

mattzang

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i had a thought driving home from work, i did NOT give every fish in there a h2o2 bath. totally spaced, but that milletseed butterfly was the one that got stuck in the mail and arrived a couple days late so i gave it a methlyne blue bath rather than h2o2.

dosed 8 mL of h2o2 just now so hopefully that keeps it weak until monday when i guess i'll setup another tank and kill the wrasses with copper
 

Humblefish

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i had a thought driving home from work, i did NOT give every fish in there a h2o2 bath. totally spaced, but that milletseed butterfly was the one that got stuck in the mail and arrived a couple days late so i gave it a methlyne blue bath rather than h2o2.

dosed 8 mL of h2o2 just now so hopefully that keeps it weak until monday when i guess i'll setup another tank and kill the wrasses with copper
Yeah, MB is a mild antiparasitic, antibacterial, antifungal... but it has no where near the potency of H2O2.
 

mattzang

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so I pondered it last night and I think I'm going to do the hybrid TTM method for the wrasses and just copper the foxface and clowns. might as well get the job done right, although i'm tempted to just h2o2 bath everyone and move them to see if that would get rid of the velvet...

could i get by using 5 gallon buckets for the TTM? would 2 fish in a 5 gallon bucket be too much?
 

Humblefish

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could i get by using 5 gallon buckets for the TTM? would 2 fish in a 5 gallon bucket be too much?
I'd strongly prefer you use a 10 gal tank (like below). I just feel 10 gallons provides more wiggle room when it comes to ammonia, and it is easier to see the fish (to look for problems) in an aquarium vs. looking down into a bucket. I also have this aversion to dosing H2O2 into anything plastic, although provided the buckets are "food grade plastic" it should technically be fine.

 

mattzang

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well i figured i'd just take them out and do h2o2 baths in my glass containers that i have

mostly i just don't know if i'll have the time to take down a 10g tank and clean it every 3 days, plus i only have 1 10g tank :( , but i do have a lot of buckets.. i could do 1 fish each with their own 5g bucket

looking at my TTM timeline i think i'd be doing a transfer either on saturday or sunday next weekend when i'll be working 12 hour shifts :oops:
 

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